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Thursday, July 16, 2020 | History

2 edition of Early iron technology in Igboland, Lejja and Umundu found in the catalog.

Early iron technology in Igboland, Lejja and Umundu

F. N. Anozie

Early iron technology in Igboland, Lejja and Umundu

organised for the Third Annual Conference of the Archaeological Association of Nigeria, in the Institute of African Studies Gallery, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 2nd-12th April, 1981 : exhibition catalogue

by F. N. Anozie

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  • 37 Currently reading

Published by The Institute in Nsukka .
Written in English

    Places:
  • Nigeria
    • Subjects:
    • Ironwork -- Nigeria -- Exhibitions.,
    • Igbo (African people) -- Industries -- Nigeria -- History -- Exhibitions.,
    • Iron industry and trade -- Nigeria -- History -- Exhibitions.

    • Edition Notes

      Includes bibliographical references (p. 65).

      Statement[written by F.N. Anozie].
      ContributionsArchaeological Association of Nigeria. Conference
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsTS300.5.N6 A56 1981
      The Physical Object
      Paginationv, 65 p. :
      Number of Pages65
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL1157952M
      LC Control Number94135388

      The early Iron Age --Introduction --The transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age --The production of steeled iron --The adoption of iron technology --The artifactual information --Distributional analysis: 'Philistine' vs. 'Non-Philistine' --Metallurgy and symbols --Implications for reconstructing Israel's early . The present paper describes twenty-four Early Iron Age sites. The pottery from these sites is currently grouped into six traditions: Tshamfu, Nyirankuba, Mukinanira, Masangano, Mikweti and Kawezi. 11 A critical analysis of the twenty-three radiocarbon dates, considered as valid for the Interlacustrine Early Iron Age Industry, suggests a time span roughly covering the first millennium a.d.

      Early iron smelting used charcoal as both the heat source and the reducing agent. By the 18th century, the availability of wood for making charcoal had limited the expansion of iron production, so England became increasingly dependent on Sweden (from the midth century) and then from about on Russia for the iron required for industry. Iron brought in a change of economy, the characteristic feature of advanced type of agriculture. In the Ganges Valley and in the Malwa region iron led to the rise of urban areas. Both Brahmanical and Buddhist texts are full with reference to cities during the middle of the first millennium BC and at sites like Ahichhatra, Varanasi, Kausambi.

      How did Iron impact West Africa? Conclusion B. The Nok Use Iron Technology after B.C. A. Before the Discovery of Iron C. Iron Brings Revolutionary Changes -More efficient farming developed due to iron tools such as axes and hoes -Larger meat supply was produced due to iron.   Contents of the Book 1: Introduction Previous Research on Early Indian Iron Distribution of Iron Ore in Tamilnadu Iron Age Culture in Tamilnadu Literary References to Iron Industry 2: Pre - Industrial Iron and Steel Industry Iron and Steel Production Centres in Ancient Period Furnace Technology: Techniques, Types Reviews: 1.


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Early iron technology in Igboland, Lejja and Umundu by F. N. Anozie Download PDF EPUB FB2

Anozie, F.N. () Early Iron Technology in Igboland: Lejja and Umundu. An Exhibition Catalogue on the Occasion of the Third Annual Conference of the Archaeological Association of Nigeria. Ancient iron production refers to iron working in times from prehistory to the early Middle Ages where knowledge of production processes is derived from archaeological investigation.

Slag, the byproduct of iron-working processes such as smelting or smithing, is left at the iron-working site rather than being moved away with the also weathers well and hence it is readily available. Fifty years of African studies: a history of the Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka () by Sam M Onuigbo (Book) Classified list 1 by Nsukka University of Nigeria (Book); Policies and programmes, /85 ().

Book Summary of Iron Technology In Early Historic India: A Case Study Of Gujarat This book is an attempt to provide the reader an understanding of the nature and character of iron metallurgy of Early Historic Gujarat. An interdisciplinary study of stratified iron objects from various archaeological excavations and explorations has been Author: Ambika B.

Patel. An Inquiry into the Significance of I rod Technology in Early Iron Age Palestine Director: Dr. James W. Flanagan f* This study reviews the impact of iron technology on the culture and history of Early Early iron technology in Igboland Age Palestine. Because archaeological and literary evidence are scarce, information obtained from art,Author: Paula M.

McNutt. the capital-embodied technology such as machines, equipment and tools, and iii. the disembodied technology, which includes blue-prints, products and products specification.

For the purpose of our study, the first two broad categories of technology shall apply in our over-all examination of indigenous technology in Umundu. It is against such a backdrop that iron technology and its impact ought to be studied.

I have tried to incorporate socio-political background at different nodal points of cultural development in this study of iron technology. The early society shaped, dictated and canalised the direction of technology.

Early iron finds 33 Number and types of artefacts found in region 34 The problems involved in iron development and production 36 The Hittites and iron working in Northern Syria 38 Regional iron working 40 Numbers of iron artefacts in the eastern Mediterranean 40 Developments in iron.

The current scenario is, however, grim. Iron smelting is a dying art and people of Wui are struggling to preserve their traditional knowledge.

The researchers studied various chemical properties and compositions, quality and quantity of mineral iron content and other oxides to grasp the use of early iron technology in Nagaland. BEFORE the development of the blast furnace, iron smelting was achieved by ore reduction at temperatures below the melting point of the metal, forming an agglomerated 'bloom' of low-carbon iron.

Iron Technology in Early Historic India: A Case Study of Gujarat Hardcover – January 1, by Ambika B. Patel (Author) › Visit Amazon's Ambika B. Patel Page. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. See search results for this author. Are you an Author: Ambika B.

Patel. The early iron technology, typology, iron utilization pattern and whether it had any impact other than status symbol needs to be assessed. Why and when iron comes to be adopted in preference to copper-bronze.

Coming of an age of iron in ancient world. Advent of Iron in India. Iron and its influence on the prehistoric site of Lejja.

Abstract. This essay is an analysis of archaeological contributions to the understanding of Nigeria's cultural history between ca. B.C. and A.D.

focusing on the following themes: the origins of food production; development and transformations in metallurgical traditions; the beginnings of social complexity; and the character of state formation and urbanism.

Chapter 6 is on iron in early British India and its main production centres, and includes a section on the survival of indigenous iron technology in various parts of the subcontinent. On the whole, this is an important book, and a substantial contribution to the literature on the subject.

It is with this aim that the present book is proposed. Status of Research on Iron Technology in India. Scholars in the field of history, archaeology, geology and also modern metallurgy have been taking interest in iron working practices during ancient times.

Some important publications may be mentioned here. As early as Hadfield studied. Survival of Traditional Indian Iron Technology. By Pankaj Goyal Recently an interesting book, Tradition and Innovation in the History of Iron Making has come out.

We give below a summary of some interesting essays dealing with traditional iron technology. As the industrial revolution developed, so did the iron industry. A set of innovations, from different materials to new techniques, allowed iron production to expand greatly.

InDarby became the first man to smelt iron with coke (which is made from heating coal). Agriculture in Chalcolithic and early Iron Age of North Central India/Anup Mishra.

Agriculture in the Gangetic Plains during the first Millennium BC/Vibha Tripathi. The early Indian agrarian society and technology adaptation/Vibha Tripathi.

Agriculture in early. This book offers a comprehensive synthesis of the geological, archaeological, metallographical, literary and ethnographic data on early iron in India.

It underlines India's position as an independent and early centre of iron metallurgy. The book begins with a review of research on Indian iron.

Throughout the eighteenth century, western scientific curiosity was directed towards understanding. The primary reason for the differences between early modern European and colonial iron manufacture technology was the variation in natural resource availability.

Medieval Europe utilized timber, particularly for the production of charcoal, to a dizzying extent. By the High Middle Ages, forest resources had all .The local production of iron was an important technology in eastern Africa up until the earlier twentieth century, when the use and reuse of imported iron overtook vernacular smelting industries and cemented their decline.

Prior to this, the utilisation of local ores had produced iron for agricultural implements, household tools and weapons.Iron smelting and forging technologies may have existed in West Africa among the Nok culture of Nigeria as early as the sixth century B.C.

In the period from toiron technology appears to have been one of a series of fundamental social assets that facilitated the growth of significant centralized kingdoms in the western Sudan and.